TenseSignal wordsUseFormExamples affirmativeExamples negativeExamples interrogative
Simple Presentevery day sometimes always often usually seldom never first … thenSomething that happens repeatedly how often something happens one action follows another things in general with the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.)Infinitive he/she/it + -sI work.

He works.

I go.

He goes.

I don’t work.

He doesn’t work.

I don’t go.

He doesn’t go.

Do I work?

Does he work?

Do I go?

Does he go?



now at the moment



something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it

future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)

to be (am/are/is) + Infinitive + ingI’m working.

He’s working.

I’m going.

He’s going.

I’m not working.

He isn’t working.

I’m not going.

He isn’t going.

Am I working?

Is he working?

Am I going?

Is he going?

Simple Pastlast …

… ago in 1990 yesterday

action took place in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present)



whilean action happened in the middle of another action.

Someone was doing something at a certain time (in the past) – you don’t know whether it was finished or not

was/were +

Infinitive + -ing

I was working.

He was working.

I was going.

He was going.

I wasn’t working.

He wasn’t working.

I wasn’tgoing.

He wasn’t going.

Was I working?

Was he working?

Was I going?

Was he going?




just yet never ever already so far, up to now, since for recentlyyou say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present

action started in the past and continues up to the present

have/has + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

I have worked.

He has worked.

I have gone.

He has gone.

I haven’t worked.

He hasn’t worked.

I haven’t gone.

He hasn’t gone.

Have I worked?

Has he worked?

Have I gone?

Has he gone?

Present Perfect Progressiveall day the whole day how long since foraction began in the past and has just stopped

how long the action has been happening

emphasis: length of time of an actio


Simple Past Perfectalready just nevermostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had already happened is put into past perfect, the other action into simple past the past of the Present Perfecthad + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

I had worked.

He had worked.

I had gone.

He had gone.

I hadn’t worked.

He hadn’t worked.

I hadn’t gone.

He hadn’t gone.

Had I worked?

Had he worked?

Had I gone?

Had he gone?

Past Perfect Progressivehow long since forhow long something had been happening before something else happenedhad + been +

Infinitive + ing

I had been working.

He had been working.

I had been going.

He had been going.

I hadn’t been working.

He hadn’t been working.

I hadn’t been going.

He hadn’t been going.

Had I been working?

Had he been working?

Had I been going?

Had he been going?

will – future predictions about the future (you think that sth will happen)

you decide to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven’t made a main clause in type

I of the if clauses

will + InfinitiveI‘ll work.

He‘ll work.

I‘ll go.

He‘ll go.

I won’t work.

He won’t work.

I won’t go.

He won’t go.

Will I work?

Will he work?

Will I go?

Will he go?


going to – future when you have already decided to do sth. in the future what you think what will happenbe (am/are/is) + going to + InfinitiveI‘m going to work.

He‘s going to work.

I‘m going to go.

He‘s going to go.

I‘m not going to work.

He‘s not going to work.

I‘m not going to go.

He‘s not going to go.

Am I going to work?

Is he going to work?

Am I going to go?

Is he going to go?




 An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before the certain time.

Something happens because it normally happens.

will + be + Infinitive + ingI‘ll be working.

He‘ll be working.

I‘ll be going.

He‘ll be going.

I won’t be working.

He won’t be working.

I won’t be going.

He won’t be going.

Will I be working?

Will he be working?

Will I be going?

Will he be going?

Future Perfect Simple sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the futurewill + have + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

I‘ll have worked.

He‘ll have worked.

I‘ll have gone.

He‘ll have gone.

I won’t have worked.

He won’t have worked.

I won’t have gone.

He won’t have gone.

Will I have worked?

Will he have worked?

Will I have gone?

Will he have gone?

have/has + been +

Infinitive + -ing

I have been working.

He has been working.

I have been going.

He has been going.

I haven’t been working.

He hasn’t been working.

I haven’t been going.

He hasn’t been going.

Have I been working?

Has he been working?

Have I been going?

Has he been going?


Infinitive + -ed

irregular: 2. Spalte

I worked.

He worked.

I went.

He went.

I didn’t work.

He didn’t work.

I didn’t go.

He didn’t go.

Did I work?

Did he work?

Did I go?

Did he go?