Reading Comprehension is the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. In addition, RCs are aimed at testing a candidates Knowledge of two elements i.e. Vocabulary and Text Comprehension.
And it is interesting to note that both these elements play a crucial role in better understanding of the passage i.e. for understanding a text, one must have better knowledge of Vocabulary. But what is more complex and varied out of the above two elements is the Text Comprehension.
The current trend of questions that come in the RC are inference based i.e. the questions are not direct but one has to infer from the given passage. Also there can be one or more conclusions given in the question which are true/false depending on what is asked in the question.
Now let’s move towards the Approach that one should follow while performing a RC in the exam.
The most common suggestion and approach is first read the entire passage and then answer the question that follows. Firstly let’s discuss this approach in detail.
Try to make notes while solving/ reading RCs. It is crucial for locating the appropriate information and also acts as a mental bookmark, thus helping in better understanding of the topic.
While making notes, one must look towards and identify following things:
- i)Subject of the passage –which/what is the precise thing the author, is talking about.
- ii)Main idea of the passage– what the author is saying about the subject.
iii) Tone of the author of the passage – which is manner author has adopted in the passage.
As soon as one figure out the above three things and central point of the passage, one will be familiar with the gist [GI – general Idea + S – Structure + T- Tone] of the passage. This will also help you to build a thematic composition and logical sequence of the passage. Thus enable you to answer questions from particular parts of the passage.
But this sole approach is beneficial for the ones who generally read very fast. Then what approach should one follow in a RC, below are the some of the approaches that one must try.
- Instead of reading the entire passage, read critically the first and last paragraph of the RC. Generally what the author is saying can be identified in the first few lines of the passage, which in case of longer passages becomes roughly 1/3rd of the passage. For the rest passage examine hastily, what the author has said about the subject.
Also for longer passages, try to put down in 10-15 words, for each paragraph, what you feel are the central points of the passage.
- The next thing in this approach is to identify the structural words that tell you the important Ideas or Transitions in a passage. These structural words play a specific role in a sentence and paragraph. The most common structural words are given below:
These three kinds of words describe three roles that words can play in a paragraph.
Continuity words: The author would support his point of view further.
Contrast words: The author would introduce a contrarian point of view.
Conclusion words: The author would sum up his argument so far.
- Further try to recognize the words that represent positive and negative role in the passage. These words will let you decide whether the author is for or against the subject. A few examples of such words are given below:
Thus these words help you establish the motive of the author.
- Whenever a question is asked on a phrase given in the passage, just read the three lines above and below that phrase to have an idea of what is implicit from that phrase.
- There are around 4-6 questions based on Synonyms and Antonyms, these questions can be answered if you have good vocabulary and if your vocabulary is not good, then read the sentence in which the word is used to get a rough idea of the meaning of the word.
Now let’s discuss how one should attempt RC questions in the Exam. Generally, there are 2 ways in which a RC can be attempted which are given below:
- PQ Approach(passage first, then the questions)
- Read the entire passage thoroughly first and then read the questions
- Skim & Scan through the passage and keep going back and forth with questions and passage
- Read the first 2 paragraphs, scan all the questions and see what you can answer, then read Para 3 & 4, scan the questions and see what you can answer, then read Para 5& 6!!
- QP approach(questions first, then the passage)
- Read all the questions with their answer options first and then the passage
- Read question 1 with all the options, then go through the entire passage to answer it. Then read question 2, go through the entire passage. Then question 3!
- Just read all the question stems, without reading the answer options. Then read the passage and try answering the questions by reading them with the options.
After practicing all above strategy and approach, here is a list of tips you must follow while doing a RC.
- Eliminate and not select: In most cases, elimination of choices work better than selection of choices. Here is an approach to eliminate which is ‘BANE’. Eliminate choices that are too broad, too narrow, that are alien (Strange) and too extreme.
- 2. Never apply your own knowledgeto the given passage. Confine your understanding to the given passage only.
Directions (1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Drama is that form of literature which has a plot, characters, dialogue, an atmosphere, and an outlook of life much as a novel has, but it is as a rule intended to be performed in public not read in private.its full qualities are not only revealed in presentation on the stage.A novel is self-contained. it can be enjoyed without recourse to any external accessory. It carries all its meaning within itself. So Do all other forms of literature, the drama alone is a composite art, in which the author, the actor, and the stage manager all combine to produce the total effect.
The management of the material of drama is, consequently, different from that of the novel. A dramatist has to exercise great economy in the handling of the plot and the delineation of character, in both of which all superfluous details must be omitted. The dramatist works within very strict limits. The novelist labours under no such handicap. He can be long-winded or brief, minute or general as he thinks fit, provided as he can be sure of holding the attention of his readers. The dramatist, however, has to work with a number of collaborators, all of whom have to be taken into account: the audience, the actors, the producer, the scene-painter, the dressmakers, the musician, the electrician and many others.He has to consider costs and mechanical and physical limitations. He cannot make one role unduly long for that would put an undue strain on a single actor and would be monotonous for the audience. His play, in short, will not likely to be produced unless it conforms to a great many material requirements which the novelist is free to ignore.
The novelist, too,can sometimes which the novelist is free to ignore.
The novelist, too, can sometimes interrupt his story and come forward himself to address the reader,to moralize on what is happening and to explain his purpose. Though this is hardly ever done nowadays. It was quite a common practice with older writers, such as Thackeray. The dramatist does not address his audience directly in this way; he speaks through his characters in the plays of Shaw or Galsworthy, put forward with special force and brilliance the author’s personal views on social and political questions of every kind. Even then the dramatist is always speaking through a mouthpiece, never in his own person.
- What according to the author, a drama_______
(A) is not self-contained.
(B) needs team work to make it a hit.
(C) cannot be enjoyed with the help of external accessories.
1. Only (A) 2. Only (B) 3. Only (A) and (B) 4. only (B) and (C) 5. None of these
- according to the passage, Drama is different from all other forms of literature because it
1. only when it presented in the state
2. by the way the dramatist approaches the various social and political problems.
3. only when the dramatist himself acts on the stage in the main role.
4. when the dramatist works as the stage manager and helps in the successful presentation of the dramas. 5. None of these
- why, according to the author, A dramatist is handicapped in the sense that_____
1. he has to be vary of the length of the drama and present all his ideas within a few hours.
2. he cannot express his opinions through his characters
3. he cannot write anything which does not appeal to the audience.
4. he cannot concentrate much on the shaping of characters,as a drama cannot to be lengthy
5. None of these
- what, according to the author, The dramas of show or Galsworthy show that a dramatist___
1. can intelligently put forward its personal views on social and political questions of any kind
2. can easily influence the audience
3. can present a good picture of the society through his dramas.
4. can only present his views but cannot offer suggestions. 5. None of these
- what, according to the author, A dramatist always has to work in coordination with
1. a novelist and the audience. 2. the audience and the actors.
3. the actors and other technicians. 4. the readers and the audience. 5. None of these
- Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in thepassage.
1. adjunct 2. exigency 3. requisite 4. artefact 5. None of these
- Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. indication 2. picture 3. contour 4. outline 5. None of these
- Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in thepassage.
1. distinct 2. co-partner 3. crony 4. solitary 5. None of these
- Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. dialect 2. stress 3. unstrain 4. accent 5. None of these
- Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. deprave 2. admonish 3. expound 4. proffer 5. None of these
Directions (11-20): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer and the middle class struggles in debt is because the subject of money is taught at home and not at school. Most of us learn about money from our parents. Schools focus on scholastic and professional skills. This explains how smart bankers, doctors and accountants, who earned excellent grades in school, may still struggle financially all their lives. Our staggering national debt is due in large part to politicians and government officials making financial decisions with little or no training on the subject of money.
I often look ahead to the new millennium and what will happen when we have millions of people who will need financial and medical assistance. Because I had two influential fathers, I learned from both of them. I had to think about each dad’s advice and in doing so I gained valuable insight into the power and effect of one’s thoughts on one’s life. For example, one dad had a habit of saying, “I can’t afford it.” The other dad forbade those words to be used. He insisted I say “How can I afford it?” He did not mean you to buy everything you wanted. He was fanaticalabout exercising your brain, the most powerful computer in the world. He believed that automatically saying “I can’t afford it” was a sign of mental laziness. Although both dads worked hard, I noticed that one dad had a habit of putting his brain to sleep when it came to money matters and the other had a habit of exercising his brain. The long term result was that one dad grew stronger financially and the other grew weaker. It is not much different from a person who goes to gymnasium to exercise on a regular basis versus someone who sits on the couch watching television. Proper physical exercise increases your chance for health, and proper mental exercise increases your chance for wealth. Laziness of both decreases health and wealth.
Money is one form of power. But what is more powerful is financial education. Money comes and goes, but if you have the education about how money works, you gain power over it and can begin building wealth. The reason why positive thinking alone does not work is because most people went to school and never learned how money works, so they spent their lives
working for money.
- Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage?
1. School education is not required to be rich.
2. By working for money and keeping it in mind, one can be rich.
3. School plays a very important role in making us rich.
4. Training in the subject of money is very important to be rich. 5. None of these
- According to the author of the passage, a nation cannot progress to economic stability and independence if_______
1. mom and dad make financial decisions.
2. the educated work only for money and nothing else.
3. schools focus on scholastic and professional skills only.
4. our parents keep on saying “how can we afford it?”. 5. All the above
- Why are most people poor and are struggling in debt?
1. Because people are or have not been trained to make money work for them.
2. Because schools focus on scholastic and professional skills only.
3. Because general people have no “money power”.
4. Because politicians and government officials make financial decisions. 5. All the above
- The phrase “how can I afford it?” used in the passage______
1. rejects things which one cannot afford. 2. envisages how to make things happen.
3. highlights the point that how one can afford something which is not in one’s control.
4. emphasises the importance of positive thinking. 5. None of these
- Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
1. Education and learning about money matters should be a must.
2. One must learn how to gain power over money.
3. Positive thinking, power over money and exercising brain are a must.
4. School education must be improved on the topic “how to make money”. 5. All the above
- Which of the following does the author want to convey?
1. Those who are taught money matters at home are more successful.
2. Sound financial education, quality of thinking and exercising of body can make one healthy, wealthy and wise.
3. Parents’ positive thinking and sound schooling can make people rich.
4. If financial education is imparted in schools, everyone will be in a position to meet their financial and medical needs on their own. 5. None of these
Directions (Q. 17-18)Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. academic 2. economic 3. political 4. artistic 5. None of these
1. ultimate 2. independent 3. unconditional 4. topic 5. None of these
Directions (Q. 19-20): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. ascend 2. augment 3. implement 4. work 5. None of these
1. banned 2. stopped 3. allowed 4. prohibited 5. None of these
Directions (21-30): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
A global investor has many choices for his money. No country is a natural choice as a top investment destination. But at times, history and geography conspire to position a nation to become such a choice.
Like China, which became the top destination for foreign direct investment two decades ago, the US, always a top contender, is becoming a destination choice driven by the fundamentally changed economics of energy with its discovery of shale gas. Among emerging economies, all the stars are aligned to push India ‘back to the future’ when it once was one of the leading economies of the world.
In global economy has very few bright spots. India is one of them. The crisis in Europe persists. China is slowing down and it is seeing a large shift of manufacturing capacity to other countries. Other large emerging economies like Russia, Brazil and South Africa face their own challenges.
Global investors do not have to be retold the fundamentals of the India Story. The country’s potential for one of the biggest infrastructure build-outs in the next few years is recognized. India’s need for a large amount of foreign capital to fuel its growth is established. The availability of highly-skilled engineers and scientists that has fuelled the setting up of R and D centres by many global companies is not questioned.
Unfortunately, India’s last decade has been one of unfulfilled potential. The heady GDP growth of 8% a few years ago had seen India feted at International for its economic performance and had investors lining up. But then, like the Indian cricket team, the country frittered away the huge economic momentum it had built. Growth rates fell to 4.5% the lowest decade.
Of course, many tried to explain away this slowdown, citing the global economic crisis and increasing commodity prices. But the fact remained that the heady growth of 8% hid some of the fundamental structural issues facing the country. India’s rating in the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business’ list was the lowest among the large developing economies.
All the factors of production-land, labour, power and raw materials-faced huge issues. Large investments were held up for a variety of reasons, and slow decision making was a big deterrent for investors. Instability in implementing tax laws and large tax demands being made on foreign investors seemed to be the last straw. Foreign direct investment slowed down and the investment cycle came to a near halt.
A clarion call for change was sounded by the Prime Minister when he announced, “Come, Make in India!” While not devaluing the huge achievements made in the services sector, this call underlined the government’s resolve to transform the manufacturing sector, given its potential to create the millions of jobs that the country needs.
Every overseas trip by Narendra Modi reinforced this message of the new government’s ‘industry-friendly’ approach and its resolve to make India a top investment destination.
- Why is India considered a bright spot in the context of global economy?
A) Emerging economies like Russia, Brazil and South Africa have problem of their own.
B) Indian economy has already bottomed out and now only a better economy is possible.
C) The economy of China is slowing down and there persists economic crisis in Europe.
1. Only (A) and (B) 2. Only (B) and (C) 3. Only (A) and (C)
4. All (A),(B) and (C) 5. None of these
- Which of the following plays an important role for investors while deciding investment destination? Answer in the context of the passage.
1. Potential of economic growth. 2. The current position of foreign investment barriers
3. History and geographical position of a nation 4. Government policies to attract foreign investors
5. Not mentioned in the given passag5.
- Find the incorrect statement on the basis of the given passage.
1. The stars are in favour of India, and want it to regain its glorious past as one of the leading economies of the worl4.
2. India imports over seventy per cent of its oil requirements.
3. India’s last decade could not do better despite having a huge potential.
4. The discovery of shale gas in China has helped reduce its dependency on the Gulf countries for its oil requirements. 5. None of these
- Which of the following proved to be a big deterrent for foreign investment in India? Answer in the context of the passage.
1. Large tax demands made on foreign investors
2. Stability in implementing tax laws.
3. Slow rate of decision making
1. Only 1. 2. Only 2. 3. Only 3. 4. Only 1. and 2. 5. All 1, 2. and 3.
- What is the main intension of the Prime Minister Modi behind announcing Come, Make in India!”? Answer in the context of the passage.
1. To transform India into a global manufacturing hub
2. To provide jobs to thousands of unemployed Indian youths
3. To woo foreign institutional investors to invest in India
1. Only 1. and 2. 2. Only 2. and 3. 3. Only 1. and 3. 4. All 1.,2. and 3.
5. Only 1.
Directions (Q.26-28): Choose the word/group of words which is Most SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. rejected 2. thought 3. doomed 4. abandoned 5. celebrated
- Bottomed out
1. to be positive 2. to be successful 3. to reach the lowest level
4. to throw away 5. dismissed
- Last straw
1. breaking point 2. victory 3. accomplishment 4. achievement 5. surrender
Directions(Q.29-30): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
1. collude 2. neglect 3. connive 4. manoeuvre 5. cook up
1. rival 2. contestant 3. foe 4. ally 5. enemy
Directions (31-40): Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering same of the questions.
Rural development in India has witnessed several changes over the years in its emphasis, approaches, strategies and programmes. It has assumed a new dimension and perspective as a consequence. Rural development can be richer and more meaningful only through the participation of clienteles of development. Just as implementation is the touchstone for planning, people’s participation is the centrepiece in rural development. People’s participation is one of the foremost prerequisites of development process both from procedural and philosophical perspectives. For the development planners and administrators, it is important to solicit the participation of different groups of rural people, to make the plans participatory.
Rural development aims at improving rural people’s livelihoods in an equitable and sustainable manner, both socially and environmentally, through better access to assets and services, and control over productive capital.
The basis objectives of Rural Development Programmes have been alleviation of poverty and unemployment through creation of basic social and economic infrastructure, provision of training to rural unemployed youth and providing employment to marginal farmer/labourers to discourage seasonal and permanent migration to urban areas.
Rural development is the main pillar of nation’s development. In spite of rapid urbanization, a large section of our population still lives in the villages. Secondly, rural India has lagged behind in development because of many historical factors. Though the 11th plan began in very favourable circumstances with the economy having grown at the rate of 7.7% per year in the 10th plan period, there still existed a big challenge to correct the developmental imbalances and to accord due priority to development in rural areas. Ministry of Rural Development is implementing a number of programmes aimed at sustainable holistic development in rural areas. The thrust of these programmes is on all –round economic and social transformation in rural areas through a muti-pronged strategy aiming to reach out to the most disadvantaged sections of the society.
Although concerted efforts have been initiated by the Government of India through several plans and measures to alleviate poverty in rural India, there still remains much more to be done to bring prosperity in the lives of the people in rural areas. At present, technology dissemination is uneven and slow in the rural areas. Good efforts of organizations developing technologies, devices and products for rural areas could not yield high success. Experiences of many countries suggest that technological development fuelled by demand has a higher dissemination rate. However, in India, technology developers for rural areas have been catering to needs, rather than creating demand. There is no industry-linkage machinery to create demand-based-technology market for rural communities. Besides, there is also an imbalance between strategies and effective management programmes. Propagation of technology/schemes for rural development is slow there is a lacking in wider participation of different stakeholders. An ideal approach may, therefore, include the government, panchayats, village personnel, researchers, industries, NGOs and private companies to not only help in reducing this imbalance, but also to have a multiplier effect on the overall economy.
- according to the passage, which of the following are the objectives of most Rural Development Programmers?
A) To promote urbanisation
B) Provide training to youth
C) Reducing unemployment
1. Only A and C 2. Only C 3. Only B and C 4. All the three (A),(B) and (C)
5. Only A
- Which of the following is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the passage?
1. mitigation 2. smoothing 3. intensification 4. outpouring 5. comfortable
- Which of the following is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given bold as used in the passage?
1. generation 2. producing 3. reproduction 4. underdevelopment 5. growth
- What, according to the passage, is the most important factor of rural development?
1. Alleviation of poverty and unemployment 2. Employment to marginal farmers and labourers
3. Participation of different groups of rural people
4. Creation of basic social and economic infrastructure 5. None of these
- Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A) Urbanisation has resulted in a majority of Indian population living in urban areas.
B) The economic growth of the 10th Five year plan did not translate into proportionate rural development.
C) The efforts of the Government of India for poverty alleviation have met with complete failure
1. Only A and B 2. Only C 3. Only A and C 4. Only B
5. All the three (A),(B) and (C)
- Which of the following is most nearly the SAME is meaning as the word given in bold as used in the passage?
1. yardstick 2. periphery 3. sensitivity 4. weakness 5. hurdle
- According to the passage, what ails the process of technology-aided development in rural areas?
A) Creation of demand for technology-aided development in rural areas is missing.
B) There is lack of participation of rural people in the process of technology-aided development.
C) There is a dearth of appropriate linkages needed for bringing about technology-aided development.
1. Only C 2. Only B and C 3. Only A 4. Only A and B
5. All the three (A),(B) and (C)
- Which of the following can be the most suitable title for the passage?
1. Technology in Rural India 2. The Rural Indian Communities
3. Rural Development-The Participative Way 4. Rural India-Ignored by All the Stakeholders
5. Rural Development-An Impossible Dream
- What is the current status of the poverty alleviation programme initiated by the Government of India?
A) Technology dissemination is uneven and slow in rural areas.
B) These still remains much more to be done to bring prosperity in the lives of the people in rural areas.
C) There is a lack of participation of different stakeholders.
1. Only (A) and (B) 2. Only (B) and (C) 3. Only (A) and (C)
4. All (A),(B) and (C) 5. None of these
- Which of the following is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage?
1. troubled 2. unfair 3. separated 4. futuristic 5. just
Directions(41-50) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
As a concept, outsourcing is no doubt gaining ground. But there are many who still keep away from it. First, there’s a perception that outsourcing could adversely impact the quality of service. “We believe that directly controlling our stores is the only way to maintain quality. If we outsource, quality would suffer and that would have a negative rub-off on our business as a whole. You can do outsourcing only if you’re willing to shut your eyes to many things,” says the Managing Director of a company. Despite being the dominant partner in the relationship, the outsourcer doesn’t always have all the advantages. For one, very few entrepreneurs are willing to take on a new outsource, unless it comes with a guarantee of a certain level of sales. The trade refers to it as the minimum guarantee clause, which means that if an out source is unable to reach an anticipated sales level, he will be compensated for the balance amount. This invariably acts as an incentive for out sources to be lax in developing the business. Yet, given that there are too many outsourcers chasing too few potential out sources, the minimum guarantee clauses often become a crucial deciding factor in choosing an outsource. Of course, there are ways of working around this.
The Rs 14-crore-chain of personal grooming and fitness clinics tried the outsourcing route two years ago by handing over management of the outlet to its outsource. That agreement did not work. “Ours is a very critical service. Our business is about people’s health and well-being. If the standards are not kept up, one mistake will wipe out so many years of goodwill. And since we saw maintaining the right service levels was a problem, we decided to opt out of outsourcing,” says a managing director. To make things simpler, it set up joint ventures with interested parties and kept 65% of the stake and, therefore, management control in its hands. Its future plans of opening specialised fitness centre chains and good health eateries are also based on the current 65: 35 model. Players with a large existing outsourced network have an incumbency problem: upgrading the quality of the outlets in line with changing customer needs. The logic may seem reasonable, but convincing an outsources to invest more in up gradation is seldom easy.
Bentex wants to move beyond the retail ambience it is offering to its customers. “We have grown to a fair level with our outsources but times have changed. We need to move on,” says executive director. Won’t it unsettle the 430-odd Bentex outsources? “We are only setting up 25 of these shops to show our outsources it can work. The rest we want to outsource,” affirms marketing manager. But potential outsources will be up against a hurdle: the stores will be allowed to stock only branded Bentex products, from earrings to bangles. This may put off consumers who seek variety. Currently, Bentex allows its outsources to outsource 35% of the products in the outlet. “There may be a certain sense of independence that an outsources gets by choosing some stock but we think it is a habit. Once he realises the convenience of sourcing from just one place, he will upgrade. But Bentex realises the psychological impact of starting its own retail stores.”
So, how does outsourcing work? “It’s like a marriage,” says general manager, marketing. The stakes are high on both sides. The outsourcer gives up his precious asset, the brand, and the outsources parts with his right to operate alone. In the end, implicit trust is at the cornerstone of the relationship between an outsources and an outsourcer.
- Which of the following is a disadvantage of outsourcing?
- The relationship of partners are at stake.
- The quality of the business is always on the higher side.
- It is very difficult to control the quality. 4. The profit margins are low. 5. None of these
- What compensation does the outsource expect?
- The cost of maintenance should be borne by the outsourcer.
- In the event of loss, outsourcer should buy back the stock.
- For declining sales level, outsourcer should not be held responsible.
- The ambience should be the responsibility of the outsourcer. 5. None of these
- Outsourcing works best if
- the relations between the partners are symbiotic. 2. the outsourcer accepts a submissive role.
- high-cost ambience is maintained. 4. variety is sacrificed at the cost of high quality.
- None of these
- What prohibits entrepreneurs to take up new outsource?
- Dominance of outsourcer 2. Fear of losing existing business
- High overheads in maintaining ambience 4. Uncertainty in reaching the sales target
- None of these
- What puts off customers?
- Lack of ambience 2. Unhealthy competition 3. Poor quality standards
- Absence of variety 5. None of these
Directions (Q. 46-48): Choose the word/phrase which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word/phrase given in bold as used in the passage.
- shut your eyes
- look over 2. sleep 3. avoid storm 4. winking 5. overlook
- rub off
- jealousy 2. rivalry 3. impact 4. pressure 5. publicity
- entrepreneurs 2. sportsmen 3. workers 4. partners 5. politicians
Directions (Q. 49-50): Choose the word/phrase which is most opposite in meaning to the word/phrase printed in bold as used in the passage.
- explicit 2. candid 3. clear 4. inbuilt 5. outspoken
- progressive 2. weak-headed 3. submissive 4. laid-off 5. hostile
Directions(51-60) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
“Rivers should link, not divide us,” said the Indian Prime Minister expressing concern over inter-state disputes and urged state governments to show “understanding and consideration, statesmanship and an appreciation of the other point of view.”
Water conflicts in India now reach every level; divide every segment of our society, political parties, states, regions and sub regions within states, districts, castes and groups and individual farmers. Water conflicts within and between many developing countries are also taking a serious turn. Fortunately, the “water wars”, forecast by so many, have not yet materialised. War has taken place, but over oil, not water. Water is radically altering and affecting political boundaries all over the world, between as well as within countries. In India, water conflicts are likely to worsenbefore they begin to be resolved. Till then they pose a significant threat to economic growth, security and health of the eco system and the victims are likely to be the poorest of the poor as well as the very sources of water-rivers, wetlands and aquifers.
Conflicts might sound bad or negative, but they are logical developments in the absence of proper democratic, legal and administrative mechanisms to handle issues at the root of water conflicts. Part of the problem stems from the specific nature of water, namely that water is divisible and amenable to sharing; one unit of water used by one is a unit denied to others; it has multiple uses and involves resultant trade-offs. Excludability is an inherent problem and very often exclusion costs involved are very high: it involves the issue graded scales and boundaries and need for evolving a corresponding understanding around them. Finally, the way water is planned, used and managed causes externalities, both positive and negative, and many of them are unidirectional and asymmetric.
There is a relatively greater visibility as well as greater body of experience in evolving polices, frameworks, legal set-ups and administrative mechanisms dealing with immobile natural resources, however contrasted the space may be. Reformists as well as revolutionary movements are rooted in issue related to land. Several political and legal interventions addressing the issue of equity and societal justice have been attempted. Most countries have gone through land reforms of one type or another. Issues related to forests have also generated a body of comprehensive literature on forest resources and rights. Though conflicts over them have not necessarily been effectively or adequately resolved, they have received much more serious attention, have been studied in their own the same kind of attention.
- According to the author, which of the following is/are consequences of water conflicts?
(A) Trans-border conflicts between developing countries
(B) Water bodies will remain unused and unaffected till the conflict is resolved
(C) Water conflicts have altered the political boundaries with in countries
- Only (A) 2. Only (B) 3. Only (C) 4. Both (A) & (C) 5. None of these
- Why does the author ask readers not to view conflicts too negatively?
(A) Most countries have survived them easily
(B) They bring political parties together
(C) They only affect the grass-root levels
- Only (A) 2. Only (B) 3. Only (C) 4. All (A), (B) & (C) 5. Neither (A), (B) nor (C)
- The author’s main objective in writing the passage is to
- Showcase government commitment to solve the water distribution problem
- Make a strong case for war as the logical resolution for water conflicts
- Point out the seriousness of the threat posed by unresolved water conflicts
- Describe how the very nature of water contributes to water struggles
- Criticize governmental efforts for water conflict resolution
- Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage?
- Water wars are taking place between many developing countries
- There have been several legal interventions in India to govern the use of water resources
- The poor people are worst affected by water conflicts
- Water diversion by Indian States has helped resolve water dispute 5. None of these
- What is the Prime Minister’s advice to resolve water disputes?
- Link all rivers to make national grid 2. Politicians alone can solve the problem
- Bridges and dams can resolve water issues 4. Make consensual and conscious efforts
- Create public awareness.
- Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage?
- Deeper problems exist at the root of all water conflicts
- Competing used of water is a cause of water conflict
- In India water conflicts affect all levels
- Only social stability is unaffected by water disputes 5. All are true
- Pick out the word which isclosestin meaning to the printed in bold as used in the passage.INHERENT
- Functional 2. Intense 3. Persistent 4. Characteristic 5. Genetic
- Pick out the word which isclosestin meaning to the printed in bold as used in the passage.MATERIALISED
- Mattered 2. Interfered 3. Hidden 4. Presented 5. Expanded
- Pick out the word which isoppositein meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.WORSEN
- Bounty 2. Accept 3. Better 4. Stable 5. Capable
- Pick out the word which isopposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.ASYMMETRIC
- Unsteady 2. Equilibrium 3. Discouraging 4. Superior 5. Contradictory
Direction(61-70): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
It is an old saying that knowledge is power. Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, indirectly controls power. Therefore, ever since the dawn of civilization persons in power have always tried to supervise or control education. It has been the hand-maid of the ruling class. During the Christian era, the ecclesiastics controlled the institution of education and diffused among the people the gospel of the Bible and religious teachings. These gospels and teachings were no other than a philosophy for the maintenance of the existing society. It taught the poor man to be meek and to earn his bread with the sweat of his brow, while the priests and the landlords lived in luxury and fought duels for the slightest offence. During the Renaissance, Education passed more from the clutches of the priest into the hand of the prince. In other words it became more secular. It was also due to the growth of the nation-state and powerful monarchs who united the country under their rule. Thus, under the control of the monarch, education began to devise and preach the infallibility of its masters, the monarch or king. It also invented and supported fantastic theories like the Divine Right Theory and that the king can do no wrong etc. With the advent of the industrial revolution education took a different turn and had to please the new masters. It now no longer remained the privilege of the baron class but was thrown open to the new rich merchant class of society. Yet education was still confined to the few elite. The philosophy which was in vogue during this period was that of ‘Laissez Faire’ restricting the function of the State to a mere keeping of law and order while, on the other hand, in practice the law of the jungle prevailed in the form of free competition and the survival of the fittest.
- Who controlled education during the era after the industrial revolution?
- The baron class 2. The priests 3. The prince 4. The monarch 5. None of these
- What does the theory of Divine Right of king stipulate?
- That kings are gods. 2. They have the right to be worshipped like gods by their subjects.
- That the right of governing is conferred upon kings by god.
- That the rights of kings are divine and therefore sacred. 5. None of these
63.What does the expression ‘hand-maid of the ruling class’ mean?
- Private Mistress of the prince 2. Something fully under the control of the ruling class
- Private maid-servants of the prince 4. The symbol of authority of the prince
- None of these
- Who controlled education during the Renaissance?
- The common people 2. The prince 3. The church and the priests
- The secular leaders of the society 5. None of these
65.What does the word “infallibility” mean?
- That every man is open to error
- That some divine power is responsible for determining the fate of men
- The virtue of not making any mistake 4. Sensitivity 5. None of these
- What did the ruling class in the Christian era think of the poor man?
- That he is the beloved of god 2. That he deserves all sympathy of the rich
- That he should be strong 4. That he is meant for serving the rich
- None of these
- Who controlled the institution of education during the Christian era?
- The church and the priests 2. The monarchs
- The secular leaders of society 4. The common people 5. None of these
68.What do you mean by the ‘sweat of his brow’?
- Very hard work 2. The tiny droplets of sweat on the forehead
- The wrinkles visible on the face 4. The sign of innocence 5. None of these
- Why have persons in power always tried to supervise or control education?
- Because they wanted to educate the whole public.
- Because they wanted to deprive the common man of the benefits of education.
- Because it involved a huge expenditure on the state exchequer.
- Because it is an instrument of knowledge and therefore power. 5. None of these
- What does the philosophy of Laissez-Faire stand for?
- Joint control of the means of production by the state and private enterprise
- Individual freedom in the economic field 3. State control of the means of production
- Full development of the individual’s personality 5. None of these
Directions(71-80) :Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Vice-President Hamid Ansari has highlighted the dearth of scientific temper in the country. His comments come just as the 2016 Indian Science Congress has drawn many laments on the state of Indian science. In fact, for the last two years presentations on topics such as the invention of airships in ancient India have created a disappointing, disturbing image. In a damning indictment, Nobel laureate Venkatraman Ramakrishnan has described the congress as a circus where very little science is discussed.
While it can be argued that the congress should be open to diverse streams, such openness can’t come at the cost of a genuine scientific ethos. As Ansari has observed, intolerance towards attempts to separate belief from scientifically verified facts leads to the occult being dubbed as scientific. Plus, there’s empirical evidence to suggest that the roots of Indian science are worryingly weak. The country is yet to achieve its goal of spending at least 2% of GDP on scientific research. Around 59% of secondary schools don’t have an integrated science laboratory. And according to 2013 figures Indians filed only 17 patents per million population compared to 4,451in tiny South Korea.
These metrics stand at odds with government policies like Make in India. As pointed out by Nobel winning physicist David Gross, attempts at manufacturing high-end products in India won’t yield the desired benefits unless backed by sustained investment in basic science – right from school level to higher education. That not a single Indian institute of higher learning figures in the top 100 ranking of world universities is a poor comment on the quality of education and research in the country. An even greater tragedy is that most Indian students today consider the sciences only as academic streams to high-paying corporate careers. Overall, the science pedagogy is poor and the scientific temper diluted.
The state of Indian science is actually a direct reflection of India’s general education woes. Lack of meritocracy in educational institutions shows up in poor research. Focus on producing degree holders kills innovation. Against thisbackdrop a framework for audit of scientific departments as suggested by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is just the first step. What’s required next is an overhaul of science education to create an environment that encourages research and innovation. Only then can Indian scientists meaningfully contribute towards the development goals of the country.
- Which of the following is ‘true’ in the context of the passage?
- The country has achieved 2% of GDP on science research.
- Indian institutions are performing very well in higher education on international level.
- Approx 59% of secondary schools doesn’t have an integrated science laboratory.
- The science pedagogy is very strong. 5. None of these
- According to passage, why Indian students considering the science only for academic stream ?
- Indian Students are good in research.
- Science proves great opportunities for careers rather than other streams.
- Most of Indians are intelligent in science. 4. Just because of high-paying corporate careers.
5.None of these
- Which of the following is the central theme of the passage?
- Mythology vs science: Creating a better climate for research and innovation is a must for India’s development.
- Indian Education system 3. Importance of science in Education.
- Overview of Indian institutions. 5. None of these
- Which of the following statement is false in the context of the given passage?
- Most of Indian students consider the sciences as academic streams.
- Not a single Indian institute in the list of top 100 ranking of world universities.
- Last two years presentations on invention of airships in ancient India have created a disappointing.
- Lack of meritocracy in educational institutions shows up in poor research. 5. All are true
- According to the passage, what kills innovation ?
- Indian scientists meaningfully not contributing towards the development goals of the country.
- Poor performance of Indian institutions in Research. 3. More Focus on producing degree holders.
- More focus in other streams rather than Science. 5. None of these
76.Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Entitle 2. Denominate 3. Knight 4. Designate 5. None of these
77.Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Clear 2. Discharged 3. Under suspicion 4. Visionary 5. Acquitted,
78.Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Conforming 2. Identical 3. Like 4. Parallel 5. Contrary
79.Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Specific 2. Query 3. Foreground 4. Scrim 5. Scenery,
80.Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Suspect 2. Complicated 3. Practical 4. Conformed 5. Speculative
Directions (81-90): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Meditation is a mental and spiritual discipline that teaches us to work with our minds and souls in a way that we can see the true meaning of things that cannot be seen easily. Meditation leads to the tranquillity and purification from negative states of our mind, which can guide people to reach Nirvana, which is the total realization of our divine potential, also known as “Enlightenment”. Attitude is the key part of meditation. If people have a positive attitude towards this technique and they accept the purpose and reasons of meditation, so that person will be more likely to have better results than people that show a negative attitude toward meditation and their conflicts in life.
Meditation is being in a process of allowing your anxieties, fears, and angers to calm down and serene, so that one can order their own mind. The practice of this technique will lead to a state of serenity and peace in their lives. Not everyone is able to practice meditation correctly. Meditation can be compared with any sport, for example, meditation can be compare to a basketball game, everyone can try to play this sport but only few of them know the rules and the central dogma of the game. And the others just play the game as they assume it is like. This mistake will lead to a misinterpretation of the real purpose of meditation, and to a misunderstanding of its use in psychological terms, that may provoke insanity. Meditation must be practiced with great discipline and awareness to obtain positive results; otherwise it can cause problems in your psychological and spiritual well-being.
Why to meditate? Some experts such as Dr. Welwood John, who was a therapist and clinical psychologist, argued that therapy and meditation can be complementary in medical treatment, even though sometimes those two terms are seeing as opposite terms for many people. Also many people refuge themselves in this mental discipline to overcome with fears, pain, anxiety, to find answers, motivation, mindfulness, and forgiveness, and of course “Enlightenment”. Only few of the people who refuge in this practice are in search of answers, therapy, true love and simplicity in their lives.
- What are the benefits of practising meditation daily?
- It helps in clearing the negativity in the mind.
- It helps in attaining good digestion and immunity. 3. It helps in attaining future goals easily.
- Only B and C 5. All of the above.
- Why everyone is not able to practice meditation correctly?
- Their body is unfit. 2. . They do not know the rules or central dogma of meditation.
- They can’t put themselves in the shoes of other people.
- They are highly demotivated and lazy to do it. 5. None of the above.
- How is ‘Nirvana’ described in the passage?
- Purification of mind and soul. 2. Clearing of negative thoughts.
- Improvement in personal attitude. 4. Total realisation of divine potential.
- None of the above.
- What is considered as the key part of meditation in the passage?
- Fitness of mind and body. 2. Attitude of an individual.
- Stress and everyday tensions. 4. Both 1 and 2 5. None of the above.
- What could be the problems associated with the adoption of wrong process of practising meditation?
- Unhealthy psychological and spiritual well-being. 2. Increase in stress level.
- Occurrence of negative thoughts. 4. Both 2 and 3 5. All of the above.
- What did Dr. Welwood John argued regarding therapy and meditation?
- Meditation and therapy cannot go hand in hand together.
- Meditation and therapy can be complementary of each other.
- meditation and therapy are opposites of each other. 4. Both 1 and 3
- None of the above.
- Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word Tranquillity.
- Peaceful 2. Placid 3. Sober 4. Commotion 5. Repose
- Choose the word which is most SAME in meaning of the word Spiritual.
- Karmic 2. Earthy 3. Corporeal 4. Infinite 5. Celestial
- Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word Dogma.
- Doubt 2. Teaching 3. Belief 4. Conviction 5. Principle
- Choose the word which is most SAME in meaning of the word Refuge.
- Closure 2. Permanent 3. Shelter 4. Solid 5. Entrance
Direction(91-100): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
As Beijing and its surroundings continue to choke, Chinese netizens are keeping up the pressure to clean up the air and water on a government which has drafted elaborate plans to counter runaway pollution. On Wednesday morning, pollution levels were 10 times higher than the standards established by the WHO, justifying the red alert that was issued on Monday and will last till Thursday afternoon.
Aware of the public resentment and call for action against pollution that has been splashed across the social media, Chinese authorities launched a “tough crackdown” against companies that flouted the three-day shutdown that was imposed following the “red alert”, state-run Xinhua reported. The state-run tabloidGlobal Times quoted Li Zuojun, a deputy director of the Development Research Center of the State Council as telling that public opinion had pushed the government to take more measures to curb the smog. Much of the environmental consciousness and activism from below is the result of the Smartphone revolution which has grabbed the attention China’s youth. The country’s e-commerce icon Alibaba group, Xiaomi, the maker of inexpensivesmart phones, and cyber-giant Baidu have played a critical role in positioning China’s young men and women at the vanguard for an ecological turnaround. Last year, Jack Ma of Alibaba pioneered the inexpensive supply — $ 10 each — of kits that could gauge the presence of pollutants in freshwater. These findings could then be uploaded online on a digital map. Xiaomi followed up with an app called the Mi Air Purifier. It sends air quality data to users, alerting them about air contamination levels. Baidu, on its part has unveiled its Bluetooth-paired digital chopsticks. When dipped into cooked food, it reveals its status, by lighting up as blue in case it is of high quality, or red if otherwise. The Chinese are drawing elaborate plans to cut emissions substantially, apparently in response to the rising public pressure and in tune with standards befitting a rising global power.
China announced last week that it would slash emissions of major pollutants related to power sector by 60 per cent by the end of the decade — an assertionthat fed into ongoing climate change talks in Paris. The share of coal in China’s overall energy consumption would be reduced to 60 per cent — a target that Beijing has to meet in order to conform to its goal of peaking greenhouse gasemissions by around 2030. Analysts point out that China is focusing on natural gas, imported from Siberia, as one of the important elements of its clean energy basket. Later this month, Russia’s Gazprom and the CNPC are set sign an agreement before the end of this year on the construction of a cross-border pipeline section under the Amur river.
- As the Development Research Center of the State Council saying that Chinese citizens had pushed the Government
- to take more actions to control the pollution
- to take actions against the companies who ignored the red alert
- to develop the strategies 4. to launch a “tough crackdown” against the companies
- to announce a red-alert
- Why was the red alert issued in China by the Chinese government?
- as the pollution increased in the city 2. as the WHO declared an red-alert
- as the pollution level was higher than the standards by the WHO
- as the Chinese netizenswere keeping up the pressure to clean the air 5. none of them
- Xiaomi, the maker of inexpensive smart phones launched an app Mi Air Purifier that alerts about the
- air pollution levels 2. how much impurities in the atmosphere
- the reasons of increased contamination level
- the reasons of decreased purification level 5. Both c and b
- As per the all conversation, now Chinese government is focusing on
- the consumption of coal 2. the natural gas imported from Siberia
- its goal of peaking greenhouse gas emissions by around 2030
- emissions of major pollutants related to power sector 5. none of them
- According to the passage, here the word CNPC stands for
- Community Networks Program Centers 2. China National Philatelic Corporation
- China National Petroleum Corporation 4. Consolidated Nuclear Production Center
- Chronic Non productive Corp
Directions: (96-98) choose the word which is Similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Chinese Community 2. Legitimate 3. Factual
- Cybercitizen 5. None of them
- Encourage 2. Excite 3. Restrain 4. Release 5. Promote
- Purification 2. Pollution 3. Civilization 4. Antidote 5. Refinement
Directions: (99-100)Choose the word which is Opposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
- Contention 2. Declaration 3. Allegation 4. Disclaimer 5. Statement
- Refrain 2. Discharge 3. Ejection 4. Secretion 5. Release